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GUIDE TO EROSION AND SEDIMENT

CONTROL PRACTICES  

  

Adopted April 2012

  

Guide to Erosion and Sediment Control Practices

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Description                                                                            Pages

 

 

Sequencing of Best Management Practices                                  5-6

 

 

Owner / Operator Responsibilities                                                    7

 

 

Erosion and Sediment Control Inspections                                      8

 

 

Temporary Construction Entrance                                                  9

 

 

Silt Fence and Fiber Rolls                                                                10

 

 

Boulevard Vegetation                                                                          11

 

 

Construction Site Dewatering                                                          12

 

 

Curb and Inlet Protection                                                                12

 

 

Grass Buffer Protection                                                                   13

 

 

Material Storage                                                                              13

 

 

Concrete Cleanout Areas                                                               13

 

 

Seasonal Considerations                                                                14

 

Pollution Protection / Good Housekeeping                                    14

 

 

Summary / Details                                                                         15

 

 

 

Typical Single Family Lot ESC Plan                                            16

 

 

References                                                                              17-18  

 

 

Sequencing of Best Management Practices

 

The following is the general order in which BMPs should be considered. Each site is

 

unique and the phasing of the project is up to the Owner / Operator therefore, the

 

Owner / Operator is responsible for providing adequate protection during every phase of

 

construction.

 

1.    Inlet Protection - Check to see that the curb inlets and/or rear yard inlets, that receive water from your lot, are protected. This protection should be in place immediately following the installation of the inlets to prevent sediment from accumulating in storm system during construction.

 

a. In new developments, inlet protection should be provided as soon as the underground installation of storm sewer is complete. This is the responsibility of the Contractor for public infrastructure. Contact the City of Williston Stormwater Management Program (577-6368) if this protection has not been provided.

 

b. In private developments, inlet protection should have been provided by the

 

    Developer as soon as the underground installation of storm sewer is complete.

 

c. If you are building in an established neighborhood, providing inlet protection is the Owner / Operator’s responsibility.

 

2.   Preservation of existing vegetation & grass buffers - Grass or vegetation

 

(including recently seeded areas) present at the curb line and/or in the rear yard

 

surrounding inlets is considered a BMP. Temporary fencing may be needed to

 

protect these areas. It is up to the Owner / Operator to make that determination based on their ability to keep employees and subcontractors from disturbing these areas. Materials may not be stored on grass buffers in the right of way. Under no circumstances will backcutting behind the curb be considered a BMP for storm water management.

 

a. In new developments, at the completion of a paving project, the contractor shall have the boulevard areas backfilled, seeded with temporary seed, and mulched. Contact the City of Williston Stormwater Management Program (701-577-6368) if this has not been completed.

 

b. If building in a private development, the erosion and sediment control plan

 

created by the developer should identify locations of any vegetation to be

 

preserved and grass buffer strips. The Owner / Operator of the individual lot will need to determine if measures provided by the Developer are adequate, or if further action is needed by the Owner / Operator or Developer.

 

c. If building in an established neighborhood, the Owner / Operator of the site must provide a grass buffer by preserving existing vegetation, seeding, or sodding any disturbed areas.

 

3.    Protection of Adjacent Lots - Install perimeter BMPs (silt fence, fiber rolls, straw bales) along the common lot lines when the following conditions are met:

 

a. The adjacent lot receives water from the site under construction.

 

b. The adjacent lot has been seeded or sodded.

 

 

             Sequencing of Best Management Practices (con’t)

 

4.  Grading/Excavating - BMPs are to be installed prior to grading or excavating. Before the site is disturbed, be sure measures have been taken to prevent sediment transfer.

 

      5.  Temporary Construction Entrance - This required entrance shall be crushed rock, crushed concrete, or wood chips. The temporary construction entrance shall be used by all contractors, subcontractors, and for all delivery personnel entering the site. (see details in this document).

 

6. Stripping/Stockpiling - Preserve grass buffer strips during stripping and

 

stockpiling. Take special care when stripping and stockpiling the topsoil from the lot to avoid disturbing the grass buffer strips (may need to provide fencing of grass buffer strip areas, prior to stripping and stockpiling). Install BMPs to stabilize stockpiles. Silt fence, fiber rolls, or straw bales are acceptable interim measures. Seeding the piles is recommended if they will not be used for a period of 21 days or longer.

 

7. Sewer/ Water connections - When excavating for the sewer and water connections, the grass buffer strip may be unavoidably disturbed. The grass buffer strip must be restored. Interim measures may need to be installed in the area disturbed until vegetation is reestablished. Silt fence, mulch, or fiber rolls are acceptable interim measures.

 

8. Dewatering - Excavated trenches, basements, or foundation walls must be dewatered in a manner that protects the storm sewer system from sediments. Discharging pumped water directly into the storm sewer system is not allowed and is grounds for the issuance of a stop work order on the site. The use of dewatering structures, or filter bags is an appropriate protection measure. (see details in this document).

 

9. Backfill and Rough Grading - Grass buffer strips shall be preserved during the

 

backfilling of the foundation and the rough grading process. Grass buffers may need to be fenced during this process to facilitate preservation.

 

10. Maintenance - It is the responsibility of the Owner / Operator to provide

 

maintenance of all BMPs on site until the project is complete or the lot is finally

 

stabilized.

 

11. Final Grading / Seeding or Sodding - In place BMPs will need to be removed to

 

achieve final grading; this should be done to coincide with seeding and sodding of the

 

lot. During the final grading, placing soil on the street must be avoided. The boulevard

 

along the curb must receive one of the following treatments within five (5) days if it is

 

disturbed during the final grading:

 

a. Sod

 

b. Seed with sprayed fiber mulch or anchored straw mulch

 

c. Installation of BMPs (silt fence, fiber rolls, etc).

 

 

 

 

 

Owner / Operator Responsibilities

 

1.  The Owner / Operator is responsible for making certain that BMPs are in place, functioning properly and maintained for the duration of construction.

 

2.  Periodic inspections of the BMP’s shall be a performed by the Owner / Operator at least once every 14 days, and within 24 hours of rainfall or snow melt, resulting in runoff (0.5 in. or more in a 24 hour period), to be reasonably sure that BMPs are functioning as intended.  Any problems noted during these inspections should be corrected within 48 hours.  A log of the inspections and a detailed description of any measures undertaken to correct identified problems must be kept onsite for future reference.

 

3.  Once construction has begun, the Owner / Operator is responsible for maintenance of erosion and sediment control measures protecting inlets on the site. For street inlets, refer to the following:

 

a. In new developments where the paving construction has not been

 

    completed at the time that private construction takes place, the City shall

 

    transfer responsibility of storm water management to the Developer,

 

    including maintenance of inlet protection devices.

 

b. In new developments (paving complete) and/or private developments: Inlets

 

    in the street remain the responsibility of the Developer until such time as the

 

    development has reached a reasonable degree of final stabilization (to be

 

    determined by the City of Williston Stormwater Management Program).

 

c. Upon final stabilization by the Developer and/or in established neighborhoods:

 

    the Owner / Operator of the individual lot is responsible for the maintenance

 

    of any street inlets that accept runoff from the site under construction.

 

4.  The Owner / Operator is responsible for making sure that the temporary construction

 

entrance is put in place and that all employees, delivery personnel, and or construction vehicles use this entrance and do not disturb the grass buffer strips along the curb line.

 

5.  For the duration of the project, the Owner / Operator is responsible for assurance that

 

all mud, dirt, rocks, and other debris are not transported by any means onto city streets or sidewalks. Should any materials be tracked or eroded onto the street, the Contractor must take steps to have it removed before the end of the work day.

 

6.  The City of Williston reserves the right to commence cleanup efforts of any site and apply the costs to the Owner / Operator of the development.

 

 

Maintenance

 

1.     Inspect sediment fences, fiber rolls, and inlet protection devices at least once every 14

 

      days and within 24 hours of rainfall or snow melt resulting in runoff (0.5 in. or more in a 24

 

      hour period), Make any necessary repairs within 48 hours.

 

2.    Ineffective sediment fence, fiber rolls, rock logs, and inlet protection devices

 

(decomposed, torn, collapsed materials) must be replaced.

 

3.    When the sediments reach 1/3 the height of the fence or fiber rolls, carefully remove the

 

accumulated sediments.

 

4.    Inlet protection devices also require maintenance.

 

 

Erosion and Sediment Control Inspections

 

City inspectors will inspect erosion and sediment control measures in conjunction with

 

routine building inspections. Inspectors will make random observations to determine that

 

appropriate erosion and sediment control measures are in place, are properly installed,

 

and are properly maintained.

 

For new developments, the Owner / Operator is responsible for the installation, maintainence and repair of all stormwater BMP’s.  The City of Williston reserves the right to make arrangements for cleanup efforts of all illicit discharges from the site and direct all charges to the Owner / Operator of the development as recorded on the ESC Permit.  The completed ESC Permit shall serve as the Notice of Violation and will not require notification of the Owner / Operator prior to commencing cleanup efforts.

 

For existing developments or businesses that are in violation of stormwater standards, the stormwater maintainence inspector shall issue a “Notice of Violation - Order to Correct” to the Owner / Operator of the business or development. The Notice of Violation shall specify the violation issues and the timeline for correction. The Stormwater Management Department shall maintain a copy of the “Notice of Violation - Order to Correct” and perform a follow-up inspection after the completion deadline. The City of Williston reserves the right to make arrangements for cleanup efforts of all illicit discharges from the site and direct all charges to the Owner / Operator of the development as recorded on the Notice of Violation.

 

In addition, during any inspection, should sediments be found to be eroding from the construction site due to missing or ineffective BMPs, the inspector may issue a stop

 

work order until the sediments have been removed and the proper BMPs are estab-

 

lished.

 

Each Owner / Operator must consider the unique circumstances of their site and do what is necessary to prevent a discharge. However, all inspections will evaluate the following

 

common BMPs:

 

 Grass Buffer Strips

 

 Inlet Protection

 

 Grading and Excavating – BMPs in place

 

 Stabilize Soil Stockpiles or protect with temporary BMPs

 

 Temporary Construction Entrance

 

 

The City of Williston Stormwater Management Program Staff will be available to discuss erosion and sediment control measures for any lot and the sequencing for the installation. If you have questions call (701) 577-6368 to speak with the Stormwater Management Staff.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                     Temporary Construction Entrance

 

 

Each lot must have a temporary construction entrance, if the permanent access is not in place. The purpose of the temporary construction entrance is to minimize tracking of sediments onto the street or public roadway. It is the site Operator’s responsibility to see that all deliveries and construction equipment use this entrance. The temporary construction entrance should be constructed of crushed rock, wood chips, or crushed concrete.

 

Wood material used for temporary construction accesses shall consist of “Coarse” grade material.  Material shall consist of shredded bark of wood ground so that 95% of the material passes through a 5-inch sieve and no more than 45% through a ¾” sieve.  Wood shall not contain material that would be harmful to equipment nor shall it contain compounds in quantities detrimental to animals, plant life or water quality. The material will have a dry bulk density of less than 22.2 lbs per cubic foot.

 

If the curb does not have a drop at the location of the temporary construction entrance, a temporary ramp will be necessary. The ramp should be constructed of crushed asphalt, crushed concrete or coarse aggregate to minimize erosion of fines.

 

 

   

 

       

 

Best Option – Temporary Construction Entrance 

 

     

Good Option – Temporary Construction Entrance

 

 

    

 

                       

        Non-Compliant Access                                              

 

 

 

Compliant Temporary Construction Entrance Storage 

 

                                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Silt Fence and Fiber Rolls

 

Silt fence can be used to protect stock piles or as a means of protection of the vegetated

 

areas. The drawing below shows the typical heavy duty silt fence design that is often used

 

for installations, which will remain in place

 

for the duration of a project. Posts may be

 

installed in an alternating pattern if wind is

 

a concern. This helps keep the fabric from

 

tearing away from the posts due to strong

 

winds in one direction.

 

 

Fiber rolls consist of straw or wood fiber

 

contained in netting to form a log shape.                          

 

They are 9”- 20” in diameter. They must

 

be secured with stakes. Typical installation

 

requires that rolls be entrenched. It is

 

important not to crush the fiber roll when 

 

installed.  It is also important when installing

 

silt fence or fiber rolls to provide J-hooking.                        

 

 

Silt Fence Detail 1                                             

 Fiber Roll Detail 1 

Silt Fence Detail 2

 

 

 

 

 

         

                               Boulevard Re-vegetation

 

 

Reestablishing vegetation is a critical step

 

in  controlling erosion and sedimentation.

 

Having vegetative cover such as temporary

 

grasses reduces soil loss by at least 90%

 

and can reduce losses by up to 97%,

 

depending on the amount of cover and the

 

species of grass planted. (For comparison,

 

anchored hay applied at a rate of 1 ton per

 

acre provides an 87% reduction.)

 

 

As you can see above, the gutter section is

clean adjacent to the grass buffer strip. 

ABOVE:Typical silt fence installation with a grass

buffer strip separating construction from

final stabilization.

Erosion has been minimized.

POOR EROSION PROTECTION

The photo above demonstrates both

the need for establishing vegetation

and the need to properly mulch.

There are many ways to re-establish

vegetation.  The quickest and most

effective is to sod the disturbed area.

Seed sprayed with fiber mulch is also

an effective way to quickly establish

vegetation during the growing season.

Fiber mulch is not appropriate for

dormant seeding.

 

 

Seed can be applied with anchored

(disked) straw mulch. The straw holds

the soil in place until the seed

 

germinates. Anchoring keeps the

 

mulch from blowing away in strong

 

winds.

 

                                                                        

 

 

 

 

Construction Site Dewatering                                        

 

 

Removing excess water from a construction                  

 

site is crucial to getting the job done. It is                       

 

understood that it is not in anybody’s best                      

 

interest to wait for a site to dry out and                             

 

pumping storm water may be necessary.                       

SEDIMENT CONTAINMENT BAG

 

It is not however accpetable to discharge

sediment laden water into inlets,curb lines, or

anywhere else that they come into contact with the storm

sewer system or a natural water body.

 

Pumped sediment laden construction site water

must be treated to eliminate the sediment before

releasing the water. Treament can be as simple as

using a sediment containment bag(as shown above).

For smaller amoutns of water, a filter sock may be all that is necessary.

 

For larger amounts of water, the Operator may require

a containment struction. The intent of such a structure

is to handle large amounts of pumped water and

facilitate sediment removal. Structures must be sized

appropriately for the amount of water treated.

 

 

 

 

                       

 

Curb and Inlet Protection

 

 Inlet protection rnages form simple designs constructed with readily availbale manufactured materials to units that can be purchases and installed. whatever the method the intent is same..to keep sediment out of the inlet.  Therefore, it is important to properly maintain devices of all kinds.

 

The following designs are easily constructed and utilize common materials: geotextile fabric and a2" x 4" or wood fence post frame.

                                                                             

Inlet Protection Devices

 

Grass Buffer Strip Protection

Parking of vehicles, storage of materials,

 

accessing the site at locations other than the

 

temporary access provided. These are all ways in

 

which the grass buffer strip may be compromised

Loading and unloading equipment should be

 

done using the temporary entrance, not the street

 

or the boulevard, to prevent unnecessary

 

tracking from the site

Vehicles should be parked on the street where it 

is allowed, or on the private lot, using the temporary

construction entrance at all times.

 

Material Storage Areas   

 No materials are permitted to be stored in the right

 

of way. All stored materials must be contained to

the private lot.  

The following are three (3) examples of improper   

material storage.

Concrete Truck Clean Out

Concrete trucks may not be cleaned

on the street. Should any material be 

 discharged onto the street, it must be

removed by shoveling, not by flushing.

 

It is the responsibility of the Operator

of the site to be sure subcontractors

are not in violation.

 

 

 

 

        

Seasonal Considerations                                              Pollution Prevention / Good Housekeeping

 

Although silt fence and devices such as the

 

drop-in or pop-up inlet protection are effective              In the course of building a home, it

 

for the management of sediment they can pose                        may be necessary to use materials

 

problems for practices such as snow removal.               pose a threat to the quality of storm Therefore, it is recommended that such devices water.  These significant materials when located on the street side be removed by   include, but are not limited to, November 1st of each year. These devices or                      petroleum products, fertilizers,

 

suitable alternates may need to be reinstalled in          cleaning solvents, asphalt, concrete,

 

the spring to capture snowmelt runoff.                            chemicals used to treat building materials, adhesives, paints, joint

 

The Owner / Operator is still responsible to                                compound, fertilizers, etc. 

 

maintain effective control of sediment and other          

 

pollutants during the winter season therefore it is        To reduce the potential for spills, it is recommended that the following are considered:          important to follow the Material Safety

 

Data Sheets (MSDS) recommendation  Halt land disturbing activities, until                                  for handling, storage and cleanup of all

 

 warm weather returns. Sequence                                      significant materials.

 

work such that all land disturbing and                                                                                 earth moving activities take place prior.                 In addition, the following BMP’s can

 

to freeze.                                                                     minimize or eliminate the risk of contamination of storm water.

 

       Stabilize all exposed soil surfaces with

 

           vegetation, mulch, or erosion control                    1. Label all containers, cans, tanks,    cover before ground surface freezes.etc.                             to properly identify the contents.

 

         Seeding should occur prior to October

 

         1st to provide time for germination and                   2.  Limit the amount of significant plant     growth. Note that temporary seed materials                 stored at the construction site. 

 

may be used if final stabilization is not                                                    

 

  intended. Sod can be placed at any                      3.  Do not pour or deposit waste into   time and provides final stabilization; the                        any existing storm drains or difficulty may be finding a supplier                                       receiving waters.

 

outside of normal cutting season.

 

                                                                                   4.  Restrict access to significant           

 

 Establish stable access point and stockpile              materials to avoid vandalism or gravel to maintain access during winter                          theft.

 

season.                                              

 

5.  Clean up any spills immediately in   If new land disturbances need to occur,                        an appropriate manner.  Cover

 

 they must be stabilized immediately.                          storm inlets or berm around if a

 

      discharge is imminent.

 

 Keep a stockpile of sandbags and other                   

 

erosion control devices to manage                                    6.  Store containers of significant  situations that need immediate attention.                        materials inside secondary

 

     containment such as an enclosed

 

Perform regular inspections and cleaning               trailer to protect against release          of storage areas.                                                       during a storm event.

 

                                         Summary

 

 

Practical knowledge needs to be applied at each individual site to determine the most efficient way to protect the storm water system and the interests of the property Owners and their Contractors. The information contained in this document is meant to serve as a guide and, in no way, intended to be complete for every instance and development site.

 

 

The Owner / Operator is responsible to attain approval of all governing agencies for all waterway crossings to be installed if a wet watercourse will be crossed during construction (i.e.: North Dakota State Water Commission, NDDOH, U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Federal Emergency Management Association, etc.)

 

 

It is the responsibility of the general contractor to acquire coverage under the General Permit Authorization for Construction Discharge (NDPDES Permit No. NDR10-0000) via the North Dakota Department of Health. Website: www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/

 

 

It is the responsibility of the Owner / Operator to obtain

Below:Typical Construction Entrance

 

(over existing curb)

 

 

Above: Typical Rock Entrance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook, June 2004

 

North Dakota Department of Transportation

 

http://www.dot.nd.gov/manuals/environmental/escm/escmfinal.pdf

 

 

Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan Evaluation Checklist

 

North Dakota Department of Translortation

 

http://www.dot.nd.gov/manuals/environmental/storm-water/docs/SWPP%20Evaluation%20for%20LD%20applications.pdf

 

 

Stormwater Field Inspection Report for Construction Activities

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.dot.nd.gov/manuals/environmental/storm-water/docs/NDDH%20Stormwater%20Field%20Inspection%20Report.pdf

 

 

Guide to Erosion and Sediment Control Practices, January 2007

 

City of Fargo, North Dakota

 

http://www.cityoffargo.com/attachments/7dfe27fd-67fd-4173-8440-76e0c0433e3a/2007%20guide.pdf

 

 

Protecting Water Quality in Urban Areas, March 2000

 

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

 

http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-types-and-programs/stormwater/stormwater-management/stormwater-best-management-practices-manual.html

 

 

The Minnesota Stormwater Manual, November 2005

 

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

 

http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/view-document.html?gid=8937

 

 

Construction General Permit NDR10-0000, October 2009

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/Storm/Construction/NDR10per20091001F.pdf

 

 

Application for Coverage of Construction General Permit, January 2010

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/Storm/Construction/ConstructionHome.htm

 

 

Erosion and Sediment Control for Construction Sites, May 2012

 

Stormwater Management Program, City of Williston, ND

 

City of Williston Website: http://cityofwilliston.com/Default.aspx

 

 

 

Best Management Practices, May 2012

 

Stormwater Management Program, City of Williston, ND

 

City of Williston Website: http://cityofwilliston.com/Default.aspx

 

 

ESC Permit for Developments 1 Acre in size or Larger, May 2012

 

Stormwater Management Program, City of Williston, ND

 

City of Williston Website: http://cityofwilliston.com/Default.aspx

 

 

Sediment and Erosion Control Guidelines for Sites Disturbing Less Than 1 Acre

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/Storm/Construction/Homeowner_brochure2007.pdf

 

 

Sediment & Erosion Control for Homeowners

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/Storm/Construction/Homeowner_brochure2007.pdf

 

 

Basic Operation and Maintenance Requirements of the Construction Storm Water General Permit, October, 2007

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/Storm/Construction/Basic_Requirements2007.pdf

 

 

Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan Template, December 2010

 

North Dakota Department of Health

 

http://www.ndhealth.gov/WQ/Storm/Construction/ConstructionHome.htm

 

 

Developing Your Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan, A Guide for Construction Sites, May 2007

 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

 

http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/sw_swppp_guide.pdf

 

 

Stormwater Discharge Ordinance for the Storm Sewer System

 

City of Williston Ordinance No. 906

 

http://cityofwilliston.com/usrfiles/AUD/Docs/OrdinanceNo.906.pdf

 

 



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